ACTION AND USE. This drug is indicated for use in hyperkinetic children and children with attention deficit disorders. In children, this drug acts as a central nervous system depressant. It is also indicated for narcolepsy in adults.
USUAL DOSE. In children, start with small doses, usually 5 mg, and then increase the dosage at a rate of 5 to 10 mg weekly. The doses are given before breakfast and lunch. The average dose for adults is 20 to 30 mg per day, which is given 30 to 45 minutes before meals. Adults with narcolepsy should take the last dose before 6 p.m. NOTE: Methylphenidate hydrochloride therapy should be reevaluated at specific intervals as determined by the physician. Dosage should be individualized to fit the needs of each patient.
ACTION AND USE. Dextroamphetamine is primarily indicated for narcolepsy. Because of its anorectic effect, it is occasionally used to treat exogenous obesity as an adjunct to diet therapy.
USUAL DOSE. 5 to 60 mg daily in divided doses.
This large group of drugs ranges in depressive action from mild sedation to deep coma, differing mainly in rapidity, degree, and duration of action. Many of the central nervous system depressants are scheduled medications. Chapter 21 of MANMED describes requirements for control, custody, and accountability of all controlled substances. Any of these agents may, in sufficient doses, cause respiratory depression. Any use of alcohol should be avoided with any of these medications. NOTE: Barbiturates may be habit forming.
The barbiturates are a widely used group of CNS depressants that have the same general action. They are used mainly as sedative-hypnotics, anticonvulsants, anesthetics for short anesthesia, and they may be used in combination with analgesics to potentate their analgesic effect.
ACTION AND USE. Phenobarbital is a long lasting barbiturate frequently used in the treatment of convulsive seizure disorders; this is the drug of choice in petit mal epilepsy. It is also used as a hypnotic or sedative.
USUAL DOSE. The hypnotic dose is 50 to 100 mg daily; the sedative dose is 15 to 32 mg in divided doses.
ACTION AND USE. This barbiturate is indicated for short-term treatment of insomnia; it is also used as a preanesthetic medication.
USUAL DOSE. 100 mg in a single dose.
ACTION AND USE. Secobarbital is used the same as pentobarbital and has a rapid hypnotic effect.
USUAL DOSE. For insomnia, give 100 mg at bedtime. For preoperative medication, give 200 to 300 mg 1 to 2 hours prior to surgery.
ACTION AND USE. This is a non-barbiturate anticonvulsant used in the treatment of seizure disorders. It is preferred to phenobarbital because it has no hypnotic properties. It is frequently used in combination with phenobarbital for more effective management of certain epilepsies. Phenytoin sodium is the drug of choice in the treatment and management of grand mal epilepsy.
USUAL DOSE. 300 to 400 mg daily in 2 or 3 divided doses. It may be taken with food or milk. Dosage should be individualized to provide maximum benefit.
ACTION AND USE. In small doses alcohol stimulates the gastric mucosa, increasing the flow of juices. Systemically, it is a sedative. Continual small doses produce hypnotic effects. Its main use in Navy medicine today is in compounding various preparations not usually stocked by the pharmacy.
The most important morphine and codeine. alkaloids of opium are All of the other opiate