Figure 3-32.Arteries and veins of the upper extremity.
skin of the face and the internal supplying the
brain and the eyes.
The subclavian arteries are so named because
they run underneath the clavicle. They supply the
upper extremity, branching off to the back, chest,
neck, and brain through the spinal column (fig.
The large artery going to the arm is called the
axillary. It divides into the ulnar and radial
arteries. The radial artery is the one at the wrist
that you feel to take the pulse of your patient.
It is located on the thumb side (fig. 3-32).
In the abdomen the aorta gives off branches
to the abdominal viscera, including the stomach,
liver, spleen, kidneys, and intestines. It finally
divides into the left and right common iliacs,
which supply the lower extremities. On entering
the thigh, this artery is called the femoral artery.
At the knee it becomes the popliteal artery (fig.
At the end of the arterioles is a system of
minute vessels that vary in structure, but which
are spoken of collectively as CAPILLARIES. It
is from these capillaries that the tissues of the body
are fed. There are approximately 60,000 miles of
capillaries in the body. As the blood passes
through the capillaries, it releases oxygen and
nutritive substances to the tissues and takes up
various waste products to be carried away by the
VEINS comprise a system of vessels that col-
lect blood from the capillaries and carry it back
to the heart. Veins begin as tiny venules formed
from the capillaries. Joining together as tiny
rivulets, they connect and form a small stream.
The force of muscles contracting adjacent to veins
aids in the forward propulsion of blood on its
return to the heart. Valves, spaced frequently
along the larger veins, prevent the backflow of
BLOOD COLLECTION SYSTEM
Since arterial blood arises at the heart, we trace
arteries from the heart. To return blood to the
heart, we trace veins from the small venules back
through larger veins. There are three principal
Figure 3-33.Arteries and veins of the lower extremity.