Biological are agents that are prepared from living organisms or their products. The chief purpose served by these preparations in the Navy is the immunization of personnel against infectious disease. They may, however, be used in the treatment of disease or act in a diagnostic capacity. Dosage and routes of administration are described in BUMEDINST 6320.1 series.
Biological include serums, viruses, toxins, antitoxins, antigens, and bacterial vaccines. Manufacturers of these products must be licensed by the Secretary of the Treasury. Their products are monitored by the U.S. Public Health Service.
The label that must be placed on each package will bear the name, address, and license number of the manufacturer. It will also list the name of the product, lot number, date of manufacture, or expiration, period of potency, and the minimum potency or the fact that there is no standard of potency.
Diphtheria antitoxin is a transparent or slightly opalescent liquid, nearly colorless, and has a very slight odor due to its preservative. It is a sterile solution of antitoxic substances obtained from the blood serum or plasma of a healthy horse immunized against diphtheria toxin.
Tetanus antitoxin is a sterile solution of antitoxic substances that are usually obtained from the blood serum or plasma of a healthy horse which has been immunized against tetanus toxin or toxoid. It contains not more than 0.4 percent cresol or 0.5 percent phenol as a preservative. It is slightly opalescent with a yellow, brown, or greenish color, depending upon the manufacturer. There will be a slight odor of the preservative used.
Tetanus toxoid is a sterile solution of the growth of the tetanus bacillus, Clostridium tetani, which has been treated with formaldehyde. It is a brownish yellow or slightly turbid liquid, usually having the distinctive odor of formaldehyde.
Alum Precipitated Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Pertussis Vaccines Combined
This is a markedly turbid, whitish liquid. It is nearly odorless or may have a slight odor of the preservative. It is a sterile suspension of the precipitate obtained by treating the mixture of diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and pertussis vaccine with alum and combining in such proportions as to ensure an immunizing dose of each in the total dosage as listed on the label.
Cholera vaccine is a suspension of killed cholera, Vibrio comma, in a suitable diluent, usually normal saline. The vaccine presents a turbid appearance, and there may be a slight odor due to the preservative. On storage, autolysis may occur so that the vaccine may become almost as clear as water.
This vaccine is indicated for the prevention of poliomyelitis caused by types 1, 2, and 3 polioviruses. UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES SHOULD THIS VACCINE BE ADMINISTERED PARENTERALLY. To maintain potency, it is necessary to store the vaccine in the freezer compartment of the refrigerator. It should be noted that certain forms of this vaccine will remain fluid at temperatures above minus 14 degrees Centigrade. If frozen, after thawing, agitate the vaccine to ensure homogeneity of its contents prior to use. Once the temperature rises above 0°C, the vaccine MUST BE USED WITHIN SEVEN DAYS. During this period, it must be stored below 10°C.
This vaccine is a dull, light-orange, flaky or crust-like desiccated mass that requires dehydration immediately prior to use. It must be stored at or below 0°C until dehydration is effected with sterile sodium chloride injection USP.
This is a sterile suspension of killed plague bacilli in an isotonic solution. The strain of bacilli used has been selected for its high antigenic