Biological are agents that are prepared from
living organisms or their products. The chief pur-
pose served by these preparations in the Navy is
the immunization of personnel against infectious
disease. They may, however, be used in the treat-
ment of disease or act in a diagnostic capacity.
Dosage and routes of administration are described
in BUMEDINST 6320.1 series.
Biological include serums, viruses, toxins, an-
titoxins, antigens, and bacterial vaccines.
Manufacturers of these products must be
licensed by the Secretary of the Treasury. Their
products are monitored by the U.S. Public Health
The label that must be placed on each package
will bear the name, address, and license number
of the manufacturer. It will also list the name of
the product, lot number, date of manufacture, or
expiration, period of potency, and the minimum
potency or the fact that there is no standard of
Diphtheria antitoxin is a transparent or slightly
opalescent liquid, nearly colorless, and has a very
slight odor due to its preservative. It is a sterile
solution of antitoxic substances obtained from the
blood serum or plasma of a healthy horse im-
munized against diphtheria toxin.
Tetanus antitoxin is a sterile solution of anti-
toxic substances that are usually obtained from
the blood serum or plasma of a healthy horse
which has been immunized against tetanus toxin
or toxoid. It contains not more than 0.4 percent
cresol or 0.5 percent phenol as a preservative. It
is slightly opalescent with a yellow, brown, or
greenish color, depending upon the manufacturer.
There will be a slight odor of the preservative
Tetanus toxoid is a sterile solution of the
growth of the tetanus bacillus, Clostridium tetani,
which has been treated with formaldehyde. It is
a brownish yellow or slightly turbid liquid, usually
having the distinctive odor of formaldehyde.
Alum Precipitated Diphtheria and
Tetanus Toxoids and Pertussis Vaccines
This is a markedly turbid, whitish liquid. It
is nearly odorless or may have a slight odor of
the preservative. It is a sterile suspension of the
precipitate obtained by treating the mixture of
diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and pertussis
vaccine with alum and combining in such propor-
tions as to ensure an immunizing dose of each in
the total dosage as listed on the label.
Cholera vaccine is a suspension of killed
cholera, Vibrio comma, in a suitable diluent,
usually normal saline. The vaccine presents a tur-
bid appearance, and there may be a slight odor
due to the preservative. On storage, autolysis may
occur so that the vaccine may become almost as
clear as water.
Poliovirus Vaccine Live, Oral
This vaccine is indicated for the prevention of
poliomyelitis caused by types 1, 2, and 3
polioviruses. UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES
SHOULD THIS VACCINE BE ADMIN-
ISTERED PARENTERALLY. To maintain po-
tency, it is necessary to store the vaccine in the
freezer compartment of the refrigerator. It should
be noted that certain forms of this vaccine will
remain fluid at temperatures above minus 14
degrees Centigrade. If frozen, after thawing,
agitate the vaccine to ensure homogeneity of its
contents prior to use. Once the temperature
rises above 0°C, the vaccine MUST BE USED
WITHIN SEVEN DAYS. During this period, it
must be stored below 10°C.
Yellow Fever Vaccine
This vaccine is a dull, light-orange, flaky or
crust-like desiccated mass that requires dehydra-
tion immediately prior to use. It must be stored
at or below 0°C until dehydration is effected with
sterile sodium chloride injection USP.
This is a sterile suspension of killed plague
bacilli in an isotonic solution. The strain of bacilli
used has been selected for its high antigenic