according to his classical formula V = d/D, where
d is the distance at which the letters are read, and
D is the distance at which the letters should be
read. Therefore, record the smallest line read on
the chart from the 20-foot distance as the vision,
i.e., 20/20, 20/200.
Use Jaeger cards to test near vision but only
when the Armed Forces Vision Tester is not
available. There are six paragraphs on each card.
Each paragraph is printed in a different size type
and labeled as J-1, J-2, . . . , or J-6.
When testing the examinee, hold the card at
a distance of 13 inches (30 cm) from the examinee
and tell the examinee to read the paragraphs.
Record the visual acuity as the smallest type com-
fortably read and the distance, i.e., J-2 at 30 cm.
Armed Forces Vision Tester
The Armed Forces Vision Tester (AFVT) is
a semiportable machine that has the capability to
test near and distant visual acuity, horizontal and
vertical phorias, and steropsis (depth perception).
It consists of two rotating drums that hold il-
luminated slides for the various tests. The handles
on the side of the machine rotate the drums to
change the slide. A scoring key and instruction
manual are provided with the machine. The
Manual of the Medical Department also provides
detailed instruction on the use of the AFVT.
COLOR VISION TESTING
The Manual of the Medical Department re-
quires that all applicants for entrance into the
naval service receive a color vision test. The Navy
has two methods of testing color discrimination:
the Farnsworth Lantern Test (FALANT), and the
pseudoisochromatic plates (PIP). The FALANT
is the preferred, and in many cases the only ac-
ceptable, method for testing color vision.
Farnsworth Lantern Test
The Farnsworth Lantern Test was devised as
a means to pass personnel with normal color vi-
sion and those with a mild degree of color blind-
ness. The Farnsworth Lantern is a machine with
a light source directed at the examinee. What the
examinee sees is two lights in a vertical plane,
either red, green, or white, shown in varying com-
binations, i.e., red and green, red and red, etc.
Have the examinee identify the color combina-
tions from top to bottom at a distance of 8 feet;
the examiner rotates the drum to provide the dif-
ferent combinations. There are a total of nine dif-
ferent combination that the examinee must
On the first run of nine lights, if the examinee
correctly identifies all nine, the FALANT is
passed. If the examinee incorrectly identifies any
of the lights, either top, bottom, or both, do two
additional runs of nine lights without interrup-
tion. The score is the average number of incor-
rectly identified lights of the second two runs. If
the average score is 1 or less, the FALANT is
passed. If the score is 2 or more, the FALANT
is failed. If the score is 1,5, repeat the test after
a 5-minute break. Do not retest scores of 2 or
more as this will invalidate the test procedure.
NOTE: If the examinee wears corrective lenses for
distant vision, he or she should wear them during
Use pseudoisochromatic plates to determine
color vision only if the FALANT is not available.
Personnel so tested must be retested with the
FALANT at the first activity they report to that
has a Farnsworth Lantern. Two sets of plates are
available: the 18-plate test and the 15-plate test,
each of which has one demonstration plate not
used for scoring.
When administering the PIP examination,
hold the plates 30 inches from the examinee.
Allow two seconds for each plate identification,
and do not allow the examinee to touch the plates.
TO pass the 18-plate test, the examinee must iden-
tify a minimum of 14 of the 17 test plates; for
the 15-plate test, a minimum of 10 of the 14 test
plates. Record the score in block 64 of the SF 88
as Passed PIP or Failed PIP, with the number
of correct responses, i.e., Passed PIP 17 of 17 or
Failed PIP 10 of 17.
Hearing of all applicants for enlistment, ap-
pointment, or commissioning is tested by audio-
meters calibrated to either American Standards
Association (ASA) or International Standards
Organization (IS0) standards. All audiometric
tracings or audiometric readings recorded on
reports of medical examination or other medical
records will be clearly identified with Results
ASA-1951 or Results ISO-1964. Audiometric